Dr. Linda Gaudiani founded and is the Medical Director of the Braden Diabetes Center at Marin General, as well as medically directing the Diabetes In-patient Care services at Marin General Hospital. She is the president of Marin Endocrine Care and Research -  a specialty practice in Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, part of the Marin Healthcare District.
In addition to her endocrinology practice, Dr. Gaudiani co-directs the Marin Endocrine Bone Density Services. In the research department at Marin Endocrine she has acted as Principal Investigator in state of the art endocrine pharmaceutical research trials over a period of three decades. Dr. Gaudiani is an Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at UCSF and has enjoyed her teacher/mentor role for medical students there, receiving the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society Volunteer Clinical Faculty Award in 2008.

Questions Answered by Dr. Gaudiani

Q: Where can I get a list of foods suitable for a diabetes diet?

A: Building a healthy, balanced, and individual meal plan begins with a visit to our Braden Diabetes Center with a Registered Dietician/Diabetes Educator. The 2018 American Diabetes Association Guidelines no longer recommends any one specific “diet” for those living with diabetes. Instead, it is recommended to follow a healthy, nutritious, high fiber, portion control diet, rich in whole foods and whole grains. Really, this is the diet that all Americans should strive to follow for optimal heart and metabolic health, as well as cancer prevention. To start, we recommend using the Plate Method for building the optimum meal. If you picture a plate, half of it should be filled with non-starchy vegetables, such as a salad with oil and vinegar dressing or steamed broccoli. One quarter of the plate should consist of your carbohydrates, like whole grains or starchy vegetables. The last quarter of your plate is dedicated to lean protein, such as 3 oz of baked chicken or fish. Those living with diabetes should consider making heart healthy diet choices as well. Heart disease is more prevalent in those with diabetes, so moderating fats and high cholesterol foods are especially beneficial. On our website under Patient Resources, we have a variety of handouts available to reference creating a healthy plate, food choices, and serving sizes. At the Braden Diabetes Center, we have knowledgeable Diabetes Educators and Registered Dieticians who can go through the specifics of your diet and lifestyle and find which foods work best for you! - Dr G.


Q: Is a gluten free diet recommended if you have diabetes?

A: Gluten free diets seem to be popular these days and advertised as a “healthy” diet. If you are living with celiac disease, then it is best to follow a gluten free diet. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Celiac disease is a digestive disorder where the body has an immune response when gluten is eaten. This immune response causes inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine. About 1% of the population is affected by celiac disease and it is more common in those living with type 1 diabetes. In fact, it is estimated that approximately 10% of those with type 1 diabetes also have celiac disease. So if you have type 1 diabetes, you may be more likely to have celiac disease as well. It should be noted that gluten free is not necessarily healthier if you don't have true celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. In order to replace the gluten in many of our favorite foods, substitutes such as corn and potato starch are used along with many preservatives and sweeteners. It is always important to read your food labels carefully, even on items that are labeled as “health foods”. As always, listen to your body. If you don’t feel well after consuming gluten, then adjust accordingly. If it doesn’t cause any issues, then carry on! Keep in mind it is best to choose whole wheat options when consuming gluten. Whole wheat is higher in fiber and won’t cause your blood sugar to spike as it would with refined carbohydrates, such as white bread or pasta. - Dr G.


Q: I’ve been using an insulin pump for years, and I was wondering if there are any recent updates in pump technology? 

A: As a matter of fact, this is a very exciting time for technology in the diabetes world! The first semi closed loop hybrid system has been approved. What this means is there is now an insulin pump, the MiniMed 670G, which communicates with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) in order to auto regulate your insulin delivery. The CGM is able to talk to the pump, and auto adjust the basal rate insulin delivery based on your blood sugar readings.  Much as there are now self-driving cars, there are also advances in the technology used with pumps to make them work more automatically. Pumps are becoming smarter and smarter, making living with diabetes less of a burden and decreasing complications. Stay tuned for more updates, and as always our knowledgeable staff at the Braden Diabetes Center is available for your diabetes needs! - Dr G.

 


Q: I’ve had type 1 diabetes for about 10 years. I take insulin injections but am getting sick of it so I’m considering getting a pump. Are there any major pros and cons to a pump?

A: Insulin pumps have numerous advantages. They offer precise dosing and setting options which give you more control over your diabetes management. You won’t have to take multiple injections every day or need to carry those supplies with you when you’re on the go. An insulin pump is also a discrete way to deliver your insulin. The major disadvantages are the occasional error with the device, and the fact that you will now have something on your body around the clock. Deciding if a pump is right for you may depend on your lifestyle and personal diabetes goals. Talk to one of our diabetes educators to learn more about pumps and find which one may be right for you! - Dr G.


Q: I was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. I’ve always lived a healthy life and was shocked to hear that I now have diabetes. Can this happen to anyone?

A: A new diagnosis can be full of emotions, especially when it is unexpected. Type 1 diabetes is in fact a disease that can affect anyone, no matter how healthy or unhealthy you are. This leaves you to ask, “Why me”? Although the cause is still under debate, there are some factors that may contribute to diabetes. This can include genetic, lifestyle, and environment components. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, meaning the body “attacks” its own healthy cells thinking they are foreign. In type 1 diabetes, the body attacks the beta cells located in the pancreas. These cells are responsible for producing insulin, hence why those with type 1 diabetes must take insulin in order to regulate their blood sugar levels. For now there is no clear answer as to why people get type 1 diabetes, but with more research and advances in technology hopefully there will be one day! - Dr G.


Q: I love pasta but my blood sugar is harder to maintain when I eat it. Is this a food I should cut out of my diet since I have diabetes? 

A: Pasta is a food that is higher on the glycemic index, meaning it will raise your blood sugar more than foods lower on the glycemic index. Pasta does not have to be avoided completely if you have diabetes though! Try a whole wheat pasta. This will be higher in fiber and lower on the glycemic index, so it will help you avoid that big blood sugar spike after your meal. Also, portion control is key. It is easy to sit down to a big, yummy bowl of pasta for a meal. Next time you want this tasty food, have a small serving and pair it with 2oz of lean protein like chicken or fish, and some non-starchy vegetables like steamed broccoli or a simple oil and vinegar salad. When planning meals, don’t feel like you have to deprive yourself of certain foods. If you love pasta, you can still eat it! Just be sure to keep your meals balanced and adjust accordingly. - Dr G.


Q: Can someone with diabetes get a transplant of their pancreas?

A: There are many factors at play here, there is no simple answer. Fortunately, pancreatic transplants are certainly being done at major medical centers in this country and around the world. If you are a candidate your doctor will discuss with you how to get on a transplant waiting list. - Dr G.


Q: Once I start diabetes medications, will I have to take them for the rest of my life?

A: No wise person would ever predict what will happen for the “rest of your life,” there’s just so much change possible and it sort of makes your meds feel like your meds are a “life sentence,” a punishment, or a failure, rather than a helping hand to a healthier YOU! As I write this I am thinking, “well, what about Type 1 patients?” Even within the lifetime of children with Type 1, there may well be a cure for this disease. Many researchers work every day of their lives to see that happen!  With Type 2 Diabetes management, fluctuation in medication can certainly take place. Sometimes I have seen so much improvement in lifestyle with weight loss and exercise and dietary change and stress management that patients can go off orals agents and even insulin! Other times meds are continued but in more effective combinations, at lower doses. There are many interacting factors and meds are really important but just one of them. What we really focus on and your doctors will as well is to get your diabetes well controlled to reduce complications. It’s easy to feel like a failure when you are asked to begin a medication but sometimes it is the best way to deal with a particular phase of your diabetes and stay well! - Dr G.


Q: What time of the day is best to exercise?

A: I think you’ll find your best exercise takes place when you can manage to monitor your blood sugars before and after if you are on insulin or medications. If not, then any time of day works but again exercise can actually bring the glucose values down, or if really vigorous and when insulin levels are too low, it can result in stress “highs.” Getting to know your individual response to exercise will allow you to put it in a time of day that works best with your schedule, meals and meds so it can be safe, effective for conditioning and fun! - Dr G.


Q: What kind of exercise is best for diabetes?

A: The answer is, any and all kinds!!! We are mammals and we are meant to move! Exercise helps bring glucose into the muscle, makes our metabolism more efficient, reduces our insulin production requirement, helps optimize weight, conditions the heart and gladdens the spirit. Can you tell I’m enthusiastic? The best exercise is the one that YOU enjoy and can perform safely. Exercise can often vary to prevent joint injury. There are special cases like patients who have neuropathy, visual disturbances, foot ulcers, active heart disease, etc., for which very SPECIFIC exercise regimens must be designed. For the vast majority of healthy people with diabetes they can do whatever they want right up to participating in the Olympics! The recent ADA recommendations are for at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week. Talk to your doctors and diabetic educators about what YOU want to accomplish and what you would enjoy. It only takes me a stroll through the hospital wards to remember how lucky one is to be able to be up and active - don’t waste a day! We offer an exercise classes with blood sugar checks. Give us a call if you would like more information. - Dr G.


Q: I love wine! Do I have to give it up now that I have diabetes?

A: Wine and other alcoholic beverages can certainly be included in the healthy diabetic meal plan and may even enhance cholesterol panels in some people but there are a few caveats! Wine is pretty high in calories so take that into account if you’re watching your weight. Also alcohol can cause low blood sugars in some circumstances and high sugars in others. Make sure you know how wine affects your medications and or insulin. Our diabetic educators can help you to include wine in moderation in your diet safely so it’s a great question to bring to class for more specific recommendations! - Dr G.


Q: My doctor says I have high cholesterol levels. I’m already cutting down on carbs. Do I have to cut down on fats and cholesterol too? What can I eat?

A: It does seem like every time we read an article we are told to STOP eating SOMETHING? But actually the most recent ADA dietary guidelines stress that there is no one dietary recommendation for Diabetics. The goals are good glucose control, heart healthy cholesterol levels and safe blood pressures and staying fit. Folks with diabetes have higher risks for heart disease so this is especially important. Forget “diets” and ask your CDE/RD to help you create an individualized nutritional plan for YOU based on your food preferences, eating habits, work schedule, cooking and eating out history and food availability. Choosing whole unprocessed foods including the healthy complex carbs, lean proteins and healthy fats which are unsaturated fats and low cholesterol but highly nutritious and delicious can fill your basket at the farmers market with an amazing variety! These foods are satisfying, full of flavor and will lead to improved weight control over time with some coaching from Katy or Veronica or other members of our team. I’ve been known to give a recipe or two myself (all the time)! It’s not what we cut out, it’s what we include! Find a world of foods you can LIVE WITH and enjoy! - Dr G.


Q: Not sure my Doctor is managing my diabetes care. My A1c levels are up to 7.3 from 7.1. My Doctor tells me to exercise more & watch my carb intake, but I am concerned. Shouldn’t I be on medications? Or have things changed in the treatment for diabetes care?

A: Great question! Your Dr. is right to start with lifestyle modifications including Medical Nutritional Therapy and exercise delivered by a proactive care team that focuses on “patient-centered care”. This means that the goals of therapy and recommendations must take into account patient preferences, needs, and values. These measures can result in reversal of hyperglycemia in many patients and are the initial cornerstone of treatment depending on the A1C at the time of diagnoses. BUT, you are right to be concerned about a rising A1C over 7% because, depending on the individual, life style changes are not always sufficient to treat hyperglycemia and get blood sugars to goal. Current recommendations are to reassess an individual’s progress in one to three months and if glycemic targets are not met to add pharmacologic therapy to lifestyle. Subsequently it is recommended to be monitored every 3 to 6 months until goals are met for further adjustments in medications and lifestyle as well as monitoring of the other associated goals for blood pressure and lipid control. Diabetes Education Centers such as as ours can help you understand your goals and how to get there and your Dr will probably be glad to know you want to be proactive in treating this condition optimally to avoid complications! - Dr G.


Q: Can I still travel if I have diabetes?

A: Yes -- you can absolutely travel if you are living with diabetes. This disease does not have to limit the activities in your life, but there are a few steps you can take to better prepare for your travels. Always plan ahead by having extra supplies on hand, including test strips, insulin, syringes, pen or pump supplies, oral medications, and batteries. It is important to have fast acting glucose on you at all times to treat hypoglycemia and extra snacks in case you are in a situation where a meal is delayed. Always keep your diabetes supplies in your carry-on bag. You never know when your checked bag can get lost, so it is best to keep these valuables on you at all times. Happy travels! - Dr G.


Q: How can I feel more comfortable giving myself injections in social situations?

A: Giving yourself injections in front of others can feel uncomfortable at times, but having diabetes is not something to be embarrassed about. It often helps if you tell the people around you what you are doing and explain to them why you need to take injections. Many people have a basic understanding of diabetes and often may know someone else who also has diabetes. Use this as an opportunity to educate others; it might even bring you closer to one another. - Dr G.


Q: How do I avoid days when I can’t seem to keep my blood sugar stable?

A: Having diabetes is a 24/7 job. There are going to be good days and bad days. It is important to try your best and not be too hard on yourself if you don’t get the results you were hoping for. Work on correcting it, and know that tomorrow brings a new day to reach your goals. It helps if you have a routine and stick to it as best as possible. Plan ahead for the days you expect to deviate from your routine. Also, don’t forget to take time for yourself. A daily walk or meditation can help relieve stress and keep your mind clear and focused. - Dr G.